Founder Dr.Joo Bang Lee

Dr. Joo Bang Lee

Do Joo Nim

For centuries the Hwarang played a dominant role in Korean society, serving as model leaders and statesmen and as the driving force behind the unification of the Korean peninsula. During the Silla dynasty (57 B.C. – 935 A.D.) they and their disciples were referred to as Hwarang-do (화랑도 花郎徒  – Followers of the Hwarang). In the subsequent Koryo dynasty (935-1392 A.D.) their presence is attested in historic sources by references to the Kuksŏn-do (국선도 國仙徒 – Followers of the Kuksŏn) or *P’ungwŏl-do (풍월도 風月徒 – Followers of P’ungwŏl).References to the Hwarang come to an end after the fall of the Koryo dynasty. In 1392 a Hwarang general (or Jang-gun 장군 將軍) named Sung-Kye Yi overthrew the Koryo Dynasty to establish the Yi Dynasty (also called the Choson Kingdom 조선 朝鮮). His son, King T’aejong Bang-Won Yi, fearing that the powerful Hwarang generals could bring an end to his own rule, initiated a policy that put all their personal soldiers under the control of the king. The growing influence of Confucianism was another factor in the decline of the predominantly Buddhist Hwarang. Buddhist lands and treasures were confiscated and some Hwarang generals sought refuge in the mountains along with the Buddhist monks.
For the next six centuries the ancient Hwarang combat skills and culture survived only in seclusion. The concepts and techniques associated with the Hwarang were passed secretly from generation to generation, from monk to monk, in the mountains of Korea. During this period the Hwarang combat skills were passed from one master to a single or few disciples. Once a student had truly mastered the Hwarang skills and culture, his master would pass on the Hwarang title to his student before he died. This means of transmission continued until that Hwarang title was passed to the monk Suahm Sonsa (수암선사 修岩禪師 – aka Suahm Dosa 도사 道師). He was the 57th generation Hwarang title-holder.

In the early 1940′s Suahm Dosa began teaching Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and his brother Joo-Sang Lee at the Sok-wang Sa Temple (석왕사 釋旺寺) in North Korea. These two brothers had initially begun their martial skills training under the direction of their father, who taught them from the time they were old enough to walk.  Lee’s father, who was a personal friend of Suahm Dosa, later asked the master to train his young sons in the secret Hwarang combat skills of Um-Yang Kwon (음양권 陰陽拳), which was comprised of both soft and hard skills. These brothers thus began their training with Suahm Dosa at the ages of four and five. This was the beginning of a father-son relationship between the brothers and this monk that lasted for almost thirty years (1942-1969). No one else learned these secret Um-Yang Kwon skills other than our Founder and his brother. Just before his death in July of 1969, Suahm Dosa gave the 58th generation Hwarang warrior title to our Hwa Rang Do founder, Dr. Joo-Bang Lee.

Our Founder’s mountain training schedule was rigorous. He and his brother would wake up at five o’clock in the morning, wash with icy cold water to clean their bodies and then warm up and practice for one hour. Then they cooked breakfast and served their master. Around eight o’clock, after they had done the dishes, they trained for three to four hours and then served lunch. At one o’clock they took a nap, and then at two o’clock they began training for another four hours. After serving dinner they studied healing skills (In Sool – 인술 仁術) and mental development (Shin Gong – 신공 神功). So every day they trained for eight or nine hours in the Um-Yang Kwon combat skills and for two to three hours they focused on healing skills and mental development.

After Korea gained its independence from the Japanese Occupation (1910-1945), the country was divided into two sections — the communist North and the democratic South. So in 1948 the Lee family escaped together with Suahm Dosa into the territory of South Korea. Lee’s family settled in Seoul, while Suahm Dosa moved to Yang Mi cottage (Yang Mi Am – 양미암 陽嵋庵), a hermitage near Woljeong temple (Woljeong-sa – 월정사 月精寺) on Odae Mountain. (Note About Yang Mi Am: Although Woljeong-sa is still an important religious site, Suahm Dosa’s private residence was burned after his death in accordance with religious custom and no longer exists today.)

When the Korean War broke out in the 1950’s, the Lee family moved further south to Daegu, South Korea. It was there that the Lee brothers met Yong-Sul Choi (죄용술 崔龍述). Master Choi was the founder of Dae Dong Ryu YuSool (대동류유술), a name that reflects the Korean pronunciation of a Japanese system called Daito-Ryu Yawara (大東流柔術). Master Choi had learned this art during the Japanese occupation while serving as a house servant to Takeda Sogaku, the headmaster of the Daito-Ryu Yawara system. Since the Lee brothers no longer had access to their master Suahm Dosa, they began taking private lessons from Master Choi and received master positions in this art in 1956 before they moved back to Seoul.

In April 1960 Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and his brother Joo-Sang Lee opened their first school. At this point their master Suahm Dosa had not given them permission to teach the Hwarang skills to the public. He said that these combat skills were too dangerous to be taught to the public because they could be used to inflict great harm if people with evil intentions learned them. He instructed our Founder, Dr. Joo-Bang Lee, to become a doctor of eastern medicine and to only pass on these combat skills to his sons. Since our Founder was also trained as a master of YuSool, he followed the honorable way and began teaching YuSool under the under the name Hwarang Mu Sool (화랑무술 花郎武術).

In 1961 Dr. Joo-Bang Lee began using the name Hapkido (합기도 合氣道) for his dojang. Founder Choi’s first masters did not want to continue using the YuSool (Yawara) name for their dojangs because the Korean public hated the use of Japanese terms. The Hapkido name was at least unknown and less offensive. The first person to use this name was another of Choi’s students, Master Moon-Jin Kang. Master Kang had come across some printed reference to Aikido (合氣道 – meaning “way of harmonious energy”), a name that was being used in Japan by Morehei Uyeshiba who was another student of the Yawara tradition upon which YuSool was based, and thought that this name sounded appealing. So Master Kang began to use the name Hapkido (the Korean pronunciation of 合氣道) for the school which he opened in Daegu in 1959. About a year later Master Kang moved to Seoul to work for the DEA and Dr. Lee picked up the idea of this name from Master Kang. So Dr. Lee began using the name Hapkido for his dojang along with two other YuSool masters who also did the same. Master Han-Jae Ji changed the name of the dojang he originally opened in 1959 to Seongmu Kwan Hapkido (성무관합기도 聖武館合氣道 1961 – 1968 Seoul), and Master Mu Kim came from Daegu to Seoul and opened a dojang with the name of ShinMu Kwan Hapkido (신무관합기도 新武館合氣道 1961- 1970 Seoul). At this time these were the only schools in Seoul that were using this name. These are the three masters who are considered the founders of the Hapkido name.

While these three masters are the founders of the Hapkido name, they were still teaching different skills in their dojangs. Han-Jae Ji and Mu Kim were teaching the same techniques they had learned from YuSool founder Yong-Sul Choi and adopted some soft style kicking combat skills. So their system had no forms, striking techniques, or weapons. At the same time our founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and his brother were teaching both Hwa Rang Do® and Hapkido. So there were two sets of martial skills being taught under the same martial art name despite the major differences between them.

In the winter of 1962 the Lee brother’s founded the first public Korean martial arts organization called the Kuk Sul Hwae (국술회 國術會) — short for Han-Guk Mu-Sul Hyup-Hwae (한국무술협회 韓國武術協會) or Korean Martial Skills Association — together with five other charter members, two in Seoul and three in Pusan. Of the original seven members, our founder and Master In-Hyuk Suh are the only ones still involved in martial arts. In-Hyuk Suh had become one of the members of the Kuk Sool Hwae while visiting Seoul in 1962. He moved back south immediately after the winter of 1962 and opened his first school in the city of Pusan with two other charter members. He left the Kuk Sool Hwae organization in 1965 and used his own name of Kuk Sool Won Hapkido (국술완합기도 國術院合氣道) for his YuSool and Chinese Ship P’al Gi (十八技, i.e., Kung-fu) skills. Today our founder now leads Hwa Rang Do® and In-Hyuk Suh uses the name Kuk Sool Won (without the Hapkido name), which means the “Korean Martial Skills House.” 





• Joo Bang Lee &
Joo Sang Lee
HWA RANG DO / HAPKIDO(Seoul 1960-68) 1967 – Disbanded Kuk Sool Hwae to create the Daehan Mudo Hwae (Korean Martial Arts Association)
1968 – Daehan Mudo Hwae falls apart & Lee brothers abandon Hapkido to teach only Hwa Rang Do®
(1968 to present)
• Woo-tak Kim KUK SOOL KWAN
(Seoul 1962-64)
Left the assoc. & renamed school KUK SOOL KWAN HAPKIDO
• Han-chul Lee BUL MU DO
(Seoul  1963-68)
Continued teaching in Seoul after assoc. disbanded
(Pusan 1963-65)
Left assoc. & renamed his school KUK SOOL WON HAPKIDO
(USA 1974 to present)
(1986~ )
(Pusan 1962-63)
Left assoc. & continued teaching in Pusan
(1963~ )
• Il Wung Huh

So after 1965, the Kuk Sool Hwae organization was divided into two parts. Our founder held the Kuk Sool Hwae (국술회 國術會)  – Korean Martial Skills Association) national headquarters in Seoul and In-Hyuk Suh held the Kuk Sool Won Hapkido (국술완합기도 國術院合氣道 – Korean Martial Skills House of Hapkido) dojang in Pusan. There has been some public misunderstanding about these organization leaders and what they were teaching during this time. However, they were masters of different styles and even though attempts were made to unify a curriculum, they were also teaching completely different skills even though they were unified under the same Korean Martial Skills Association (Kuk Sool Hwae).

During this time our Founder had the best operation of the Kuk Sool Hwae in either the capital Seoul or the rest of the nation. Every year from 1962-1966 he promoted his Kuk Sool Hwae in the Jang Chung sports arena with an exposition and tournament. These were some of the biggest martial arts events of that time and were broadcasted on Korean national television. During this time all martial art practitioners knew that our founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and his brother founded the renowned Kuk Sool Hwae organization and the Hapkido name.

In 1963 the Korean Dae Dong Ryu YuSool founder Yong-Sul Choi and his first Masters (Joo-Bang Lee, Joo-Sang Lee, Woo-tack Kim, Han-Jae Ji, Bok-Sup Suh, Jeong-Yoon Kim, Kwang-Hwa Won) held a meeting at the HanPool school in Seoul. At this meeting there were dicussions to change the martial art names of YuSool and Hapkido to the new martial art name of Kido (기도 氣道). The reason for this change was that the art of Aikido (合氣道) established in 1943 by Morei Ueshiba, one of Takeda Sogaku’s students in the Daito Ryu Yawara system, had become increasingly popular during the 1960′s in Japan. As a result the Hapkido (합기도 合氣道) name, which is the Korean pronunciation of the Japanese term Aikido (合氣道), was just as problematic for the Korean public as YuSool had once been. After this meeting Bok-Sup Suh and Doo-Yong Kim made a second organization of Korean martial arts called the Korean Kido Association (대한기도회 大韓氣道會) and registered it with the Korean government. However, this organization was based in the rural area of Daegu, South Korea and no one else joined the organization, and the Kido name did not stay (most masters continued under the Hapkido name). Over twenty years later, in the late 1980’s, In Hyuk Suh took over the empty label of Kido identity and gave it to his brother In-Sun Seo. So this later Korean Kido Association is also one of In-Hyuk Suh’s organizations.

The following list identifies all of the martial art dojangs that were operating in Seoul in 1963.

1. Two Yudo schools:
– Yudo college
– Yudo Jungang dojang

2. Seven Hwa Rang Do® and Hapkido dojangs:
– Two Kuk Sool Hwae dojangs — Founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and Joo-Sang Lee’s dojang (1960 – present) and Woo Kim’s dojang (1962-1970) in Seoul, plus In-Hyuk Suh’s dojang in Pusan (1963-present)
– Two Seongmu Kwan dojangs — one by Founder Han-Jae Ji opened 1959 originally with Yawara name and then changed to Seongmu Kwan (1962-1968), plus Yong-Jin Kim’s dojang (1962-1968)
– One Shinmu Kwan dojang — Founder Mu-Hong Kim (1961~1970)
– One Kwangmu Kwan dojang — Founders Dong-Gu Lee and Yong-Jin Cha (1963~1968)
– One Musool Kwan dojang — Founder Kwang-Hwa Won (1963~1972)

3. Six main hard-style dojangs:
– Songmu Kwan KongSooDo dojang — Founder Byung-Jik Ro (1953~1965)
– Ch’angmu Kwan KongSooDo dojang — Founder Nam-Suk Lee (1955~1965)
– Ch’ongdo Kwan KongSooDo dojang — Founder Won-Kuk Lee (1953~1965)
– Jido Kwan KongSooDo dojang — Founder Jeong-Woo Lee (1956~1965)
– Muduk Kwan TangSooDo dojang — Founder Ki Hwang (1953~1965)
– Ohdo Kwan Taekwondo (from the military) — Founder Hong-Hee Choi (1958~1965)

So the martial arts that Korea had after the independence from Japan are Gumdo (Kendo), Yudo (Judo), Kongsoodo (Karatedo), Tangsoodo (Karatedo), YuSool (Daito Ryu Yawara or Aiki Jujitsu which came to Korea in 1945 but was publically founded in 1953). Then there are the three martial arts that became the base of the new Korean traditional combat skills, Hwa Rang Do® (founded 1960), Hapkido (the new form of Daedong Ryu YuSool descended from Daito Ryu Yawara – founded 1961), and Taekwondo (founded when KongSooDo, TangSooDo or SooBakDo, and Taekwondo unified in 1965).

Song Mu Kwan Kong Soo Do
(Ro Byung-Jik) 1953-65
Ch’ong Do Kwan Kong Soo Do
(Lee Won-Kuk) 1953-65
Ch’ang Mu Kwan Kong Soo Do
(Lee Nam-Suk) 1953-65
Ji Do Kwan Kong Soo Do智導館空手道 (Lee Jeong-Woo) 1956-65
Han Mu Kwan Kong Soo Do
   ?   -65
Mu Deok Kwan Tang Soo Do
(Hwang Ki) 1949-65
Oh Do Kwan Tae Kwon Do
奧濤館跆拳道 (military)
(Choi Hong-Hi) 1959-65

Joins Together to Form:

Korean Taesoodo Association


(1964 – 6 mo.)

Korean Taekwondo Association



Association Divides in 1973:

World Taekwondo Federation

(Saegye Taekwondo Yeon-Maeng)

Dr. Kim Un-Yong

1973-present (Seoul)

International Taekwondo Federation

(Kuk-Jae Taekwondo Yeon-Maeng)

Choi Hong-Hi

1973-present (Canada)

In 1967 the Korean president Jeong-Hee Park became interested in our Founder’s Kuk Sool Hwae. So the chief of the secret agents, Jong-Kyu Park sent master Han-Jae Ji (who was teaching the secret agents of the Korean Blue House) to meet with our founder Dr. Lee at his headquarters in Seoul. There they discussed the President’s request to unify the Korean martial arts under one name and governing organization like what had happened in 1965 when Kong Soo Do (SongMu Kwan, Ch’ongDo Kwan, Ch’angMu Kwan, JiDo Kwan, HanMu Kwan), Tang Soo Do (MuDuk Kwan), and Tae Kwon Do (military OhDo Kwan) unified as a Korean martial sport under the name Tae Kwon Do and the one governing organization of the Korean Tae Kwon Do Association. So, Grandmaster Lee and Grandmaster Ji banded together to try and unify the Korean martial arts. At this time our Founder disbanded his Kuk Sool Hwae organization and began to focus on this new task.

At the request of President Park, our Founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and his brother Joo-Sang Lee organized the Korean Martial Arts Association (Daehan Mudo Hwae, 대한무도회 大韓武道會) together with SeongMu Kwan Hapkido founder Han-Jae Ji, Kihapdo founder Dae-Hoon Choi (who held a high position in the KCIA), Jong-Kyu Park (the chief secret agent), and Ji-Chul Cha (a congressman who later became the chief secret agent and was assassinated with President Park). Dae-Hoon Choi became president of the Association, Jong- Kyu Park became the chairman, and there were many government administrators and congressman that were board members. Our founder Dr. Lee, his brother, and other Hwa Rang Do masters directed the unification of all the Korean martial arts and promotions, while other martial art founders supported their efforts.

On May 27, 1968 the National Unified Korean Martial Arts Exposition was held at the Jang Chung Sports Arena in Seoul under promotion of our founder Dr. Lee and his brother. The martial arts that were included in this exhibition of unification were:

•     Hwa Rang Do (화랑도 花郎道)
•     Bi Sool (비술 秘術)
•     Kido (기도 氣道)
•     Ki Hap Do (기합도 氣合道)
•     Kuk Ki Do (국기도 國氣道)
•     Kuk Sul Kwan Hapkido (국술관합기도 國術館合氣道)
•     Seong Mu Kwan Hapkido (성무관합기도 聖武館合氣道)
•     Shin Mu Kwan Hapkido (신무관합기도 新武館合氣道)
•     Yu Sool (유술 柔術)
•     Yu Kwon Sul (유관술 柔拳術)

Presently all of these other martial art names have been disbanded and are no longer used in the public except for Hwa Rang Do® and Hapkido.
At the time of this unified martial arts exposition, Grandmaster Yong-Sul Choi who was the founder of YuSool officially changed the name of his art to Hapkido. At this time his title became Hapkido Dojoonim (the owner of Hapkido) and he no longer used the YuSool name. Also at this event in 1968, Grandmaster Choi conferred upon our Founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and Han-Jae Ji the rank of Grandmaster, 8th Dan Degree Black Belt, the highest position in Hapkido.

Unfortunately, the Daehan Mudo Hwae (Korean Martial Art Association) disbanded shortly after the unified martial arts exposition. One of the Hapkido officers began selling the rights to hundreds of dojang licenses and high ranking black-belt certificates, making it impossible to regulate and control the quality of the art. The Lee brothers knew they were could not represent Hapkido if the ethos of the art was going to disintegrate in this fashion. Unable to find a solution, Joo-Bang Lee went to his master Suahm Dosa and explained the circumstances that had transpired over the past eight years. After recounting these events, Dr. Lee finally received permission from Suahm Dosa to teach the ancient Hwarang combat skills to the public. As a result, the Daehan Mudo Hwae (Korean Martial Art Association) disbanded. Dae-Hoon Choi and Han-Jae Ji continued to promote Hapkido under the auspices of the Korean Hapkido Association (Daehan Hapkido Hyop Hwae – 대한합기도협회 大韓合氣道協會). Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and his brother, Joo-Sang Lee, created HWA RANG DO® (화랑도 花郎道  – “The Way of the Flowering Manhood”) and the Korean Hwa Rang Do® Association (Daehan Hwarangdo Hwae – 대한화랑도회  大韓花郎道會).

In 1968 the Lee brothers combined the spirit and philosophy of the ancient Hwarang together with the secret combat skills that had been transmitted to them by Suahm Dosa. Since Dr. Joo-Bang Lee and his brother had been taught all the skills of the combat system without any ranking system, our Founder created and divided all of the skills that he had learned into his Hwa Rang Do syllabus for the public. From this point on he concentrated his efforts exclusively on the development of Hwa Rang Do.

In 1968 our Founder’s brother, Head Grandmaster Joo-Sang Lee, also introduced the martial art of Hwa Rang Do to the United States of America. Recognizing that the United States would be a strategic location for promoting Hwa Rang Do to the rest of the world, our Founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee immigrated to America in 1972. Here he established the sole international governing agency of Hwa Rang Do, the WORLD HWA RANG DO® ASSOCIATION, which currently operates from the Hwa Rang Do World Headquarters in Tustin, California.

In 1990, Founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee developed an undergraduate martial sport program for the martial art Hwa Rang Do and named it TAE SOO DO® (태수도 太手道). This name, which literally means the ‘Way of the Great Hand’, is metaphorically translated as the ‘Way of the Warrior Spirit’. This martial sport program was added because Hwa Rang Do training is very complicated and difficult. Individuals must first develop a strong foundation of martial skills and attitude before they are ready to effectively pursue Hwa Rang Do training. Since the traditional syllabus of Hwa Rang Do established in 1960 could not be changed, Tae Soo Do was created as a means of presenting aspects of Hwa Rang Do as a form of recreation and self-defense to the vast majority of people who were not experienced in martial arts. The goal was to develop strong fundamentals of a complete martial artist from striking, grappling, and weaponry.  After these practitioners receive a Tae Soo Do black belt, they can receive a Hwa Rang Do Yellow Sash and continue training in the main art of Hwa Rang Do.

When Founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee created Hwa Rang Do® as a public martial art identity, he divided our Hwa Rang Do curriculum into the dichotomies of Musool (무술 武術 – martial skills) and Insool (인술 仁術 – healing skills). If one has the ability to cause injury or take a life, then he or she must also have the ability to heal and preserve life. Founder Dr. Lee is a licensed doctor of eastern medicine and an acupuncture specialist and Ki healer. He learned secret techniques from his master Suahm Dosa’s healing skills, graduated from DongYang University of Eastern Medicine in Korea, and received his Ph D. from SamRa University of oriental medicine. He insists that all advanced practitioners of Hwa Rang Do learn the healing arts as well as the combative aspects.

Founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee is the one who divided and created the categories of Hwa Rang Do® for public instruction. The martial art skills (or Musool) are divided into four categories: Nae Gong (內功 – internal training), Wae Gong (外功 – external power training), Mugi Gong (武技功 or 武器功 – weapon training), and Shin Gong (神功 – mental training). He also divided the healing aspects or (In-sool) into the six categories of Ji Ap Sool (指壓術 – acupressure), Ch’im Gu Sool (針灸術 – acupuncture and moxibustion), Yak Bang Bop (藥方法 – herbal medicine), Jup Gol Sool (接骨術 – bone setting), Hwal Bop (活法 – Special Aids), and Ki Ryuk Sool (氣力術 – Ki-power healing).

Our founder also teaches the ancient Hwarang code of ethics and his own philosophies concerning human morality. These concepts are embodied in the ancient Hwarang O Kae (“Five Rules of the Hwarang”) (insert link to Wonkwang Bopsa story) and in our Founder’s Hwarang Kyo Hoon (“Hwarang Code of Ethics”).

(The five rules of the ancient Hwarang)

1. SA GUN E CHOONG – 사군이충 事君以忠

2. SA CHIN E HYO – 사친이효 事親以孝

3. KYO WOO E SHIN – 교우이신 交友以信

4. IM JEON MU TWAE – 임전무퇴 臨戰無退

5. SAL SENG YOO TECH – 살생유택 殺生有擇

(Our Founder’s nine teaching moralities)

1. IN 인 仁

2. UEI 의 義

3. YAE 예 禮

4. JI 지 智

5. SHIN 신 信

6. SUN 선 善

7. DUK 덕 德

8. CHOONG 충 忠

9.YONG 용 勇

In order to maintain its historic identity, our Founder has established Hwa Rang Do® as an international trademark. He has also secured a copyright registration that encompasses all techniques, the syllabus, uniforms, its name, and all other aspects of our art. Hwa Rang Do® is thus protected by international and federal laws. Because our founder created this martial art from the Um-Yang Kwon skills of his master, the name Um-Yang Kwon® also falls under this trademark protection and cannot be used without authorization. The registration of Hwa Rang Do® has been done in order to protect and ensure the quality of this martial art for the sake of future generations.

Our Founder has also demonstrated by his actions and teaching the importance of loyalty to a single martial art identity. Although individual Hwa Rang Do instructors may have once trained in other systems, they no longer do so and no longer lay claim to those ranks.  In this manner they follow the example of our Founder who relinquished his founding position in Hapkido in order to dedicate all his efforts to the promotion of the ancient skills taught to him by Suahm Dosa.  As a result, all the Hwa Rang Do academies and clubs throughout the world teach the same curriculum passed down to them from their founder. This Hwa Rang Do identity is also why the World Hwa Rang Do Association never gives permission to use the terms Kwan (관 館), Won (원 院) or any personal name in connection with Hwa Rang Do.
Our Founder also ensures the ongoing legacy of Hwa Rang Do by requiring that all Hwa Rang Do® practitioners receive their Dan degrees directly from the one and only source of this martial art, Founder Dr. Joo-Bang Lee. Wherever you go in the world, you can be assured that certified Hwa Rang Do instructors are not promoting themselves with ranks or titles they have not earned. Through the efforts of the World Hwa Rang Do® Association and the policies it has created, the martial art identity of Hwa Rang Do® will be able to maintain its integrity and we can be proud of our true ranks.

*Note about P’ungwol: Throughout history the terms P’ungnyu (風流), P’ungwŏl (風月), and P’ungwŏl-do (風月道) have referred to: 1) classical sense: moral influence, customs and manners, or vestiges of customs (with political and moralistic connotations); 2) Chinese Three Kingdoms period: personal character; 3) Chin dynasty: that which demands respect or attracts the attention of others; eventually came to mean “free-spirited, unconventional” (i.e., what is aesthetically praiseworthy, rather than morally so); 4) in the Shih-shou hsin-yu it refers to cultivated manners, urbanity, refinement, or aestetic sensitivity (Peter H. Lee, The Lives of Eminent Korean Monks: The Haedong Kosung Chon, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1969, p. 67-68, n. 314; Richard Rutt “The Flower Boys of Silla,” Transactions of the Korean Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. 38 (October 1961) pp. 11-12).